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SALTS AND SALT HYDROLYSIS


(1) Salts are the compounds formed by neutralization between acids and bases which are containing at least one positive part (Cation) other than H+ and also at least  one Negative part (Anion) other than OH-.
(2) Salts may taste salty, bitter, a stringer or sweet or tasteless
(3) Solution of salts may be acidic, basic or neutral.
(4) Fused salts and their aqueous solutions conduct electricity and undergo electrolysis
(5)The salts are generally crystalline solids
CLASSIFICATION OF SALTS:
These salts may be classified into four categories.
(A) SIMPLE SALTS:
The salts formed by the neutralization process between acid and base. These are of three types.
(1) Normal salt:     
The salt formed by the loss of all possible protons (replaceable H+ ions)
For example NaCl, NaNO3, K2SO4, Ca3 (PO4)2, Na3BO3, Na2HPO, NaH2PO2 etc.
(2) Acidic salts:
Salts formed by incomplete neutralization of polybasic acid. Such salts contain one or more replaceable H atom.
For examples NaHCO3, NaHSO4, NaH2PO4, Na2HPO4 etc.
Above salts when neutralised by base form normal salts.
(3) Basic salts:
Salts formed by incomplete neutralization of poly acidic bases are called basic salts. These salt contain one or more hydroxyl groups.basic salt when neutralised by acids form normal salts.
Ex. Zn(OH)Cl,  Mg(OH)Cl,  Fe(OH)2Cl, Bi(OH)2 etc.
(B) DOUBLE SALTS:
(1)The addition compounds formed by the combination of two simple salts are termed as double salts.
(2) Double salts are stable in solid state only.
(3) When dissolved in water, it furnishes all the ions present in the simple salt form which it has been constituted.
(4)The solution of double salt shows the properties of the samples salts from which it has been constituted
For examples
Mohar’s salt-FeSO4 (NH4)2SO4 .6H2O (Ferrous ammonium sulphate)
Alum’s- K2SO4Al2 (SO4)3. 24H2O (Potassium ammonium sulphate)
Karnalite- KCl.MgCl2.6 (H2O)
Dolomite- CaCO3.MgCO3 or CaMg (CO3)2

(C) COMPLEX SALTS:
(1) Complex salts are formed by combination of two simple salts or molecular compounds.
      For examples   K4Fe (CN)6, Co(NH3)6 SO4 etc.
(2) Complex salts are stable in solid states as well as solutions
(3) Complex salts On dissolving in water, if furnishes a complex ion.
(4) The properties of the solution are different from the properties of the substance from which it has been constituted.

(D) MIXED SALTS:
(1)The salt which furnishes more than one cation or more than one anion when dissolved in water is Called mixed salt.
FOR EXAMPLE - CaOCl2, NaKSO4, NaNH4HPO4 etc.

SALT HYDROLYSIS:
[1] ANIONIC SALT HYDROLYSIS:
[2] CATIONIC SALT HYDROLYSIS:
[3] CATIONIC AS WELL AS ANIONIC HYDROLYSIS:

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