Hydrogen peroxide is a colourless liquid used as bleaching agent in some food and act as oxidising as well as
reducing agent.The most common use of hydrogen peroxide is in cosmetic
including personal care, hair dye, bleach shampoos conditioners and first
aid antiseptic.

Hydrogen peroxide also used as propellant for torpedoes on account of its exothermic decomposition.

Hydrogen peroxide also used as propellant for torpedoes on account of its exothermic decomposition.

The
strength of Hydrogen peroxide expressed several ways like Volume strength, W/V
% (% strength), Molarity, Normality etc.

__COMMERCIAL LABELLING OF H___{2}O_{2}AS ‘X’ VOLUME :
Commercially H

Where 'X' may be 10V, 20V, 30V, 40 V etc.

_{2}O_{2}labelled as 'X' volume H_{2}O_{2}(at P=1 ATM and T=273 K)Where 'X' may be 10V, 20V, 30V, 40 V etc.

Here 'X' Volume H

_{2}O

_{2}means that 1ml of such solution of hydrogen peroxide on decomposition produce 'X' ml of oxygen (at P=1 ATM and T=273 K).

For example 10 Volume H

_{2}O_{2}means that 1ml of such solution of hydrogen peroxide on decomposition produce '10' ml of oxygen (at P=1 ATM and T=273 K).

__W/V % or PERCENTAGE STRENGTH OF H___{2}O_{2}SOLUTION:
The amount of H

_{2}O_{2}in gram present in 100 ml of aqueous solution of H_{2}O_{2}. Called (w/v) or percentage strength.**Illustration**: taken 10 V (Vol) H

_{2}O

_{2}:

##
**By Stoichiometric calculations:**

**Thus 1ml, 10 V labelled H**

_{2}O_{2}(aq) solution contains 0.0303 gm H_{2}O_{2}.
Similarly 100 ml, 10 V labelled H

_{2}O_{2}(aq) solution contains 0.0303x100=3.03 gm of H_{2}O_{2}.**This called W/V % or percentage strength of H**_{2}O_{2}solution.

__MOLARITY AND NORMALITY OF H___{2}O:

**And 1000 ml, 10 V labelled H**

_{2}O_{2}(aq) solution contains 0.0303x1000=30.30 gm H_{2}O_{2}. It means 30.30 gm H_{2}O_{2 }dissolved in 1000 ml (1L) Solution.

Hence Molarity
of 10 V H

_{2}O_{2 }Solution is = 0.89 M**Normality of 10V H**

_{2}O_{2 }(aq)_{ }Solution:
Hence
Normality of 10 V H

_{2}O_{2 }Solution is =1.79 N
We also know that

**NORMALITY= MOLARITY X n-FACTOR**

**Normality= O.89x2 =1.79 N**

__ALTERNATIVE MATHAD TO DTERMINED MOLARITY AND NORMALITY:__
Volume of O

_{2 }provided by 1unit Volume of H_{2}O_{2 }aq Solution**ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES:**

EXAMPLE: (1) A solution of H

EXAMPLE: (2) Convert 20 V H

EXAMPLE: (3) Convert 6.8 % strength of H2O2 into Volume strength?

EXAMPLE: (4) 500 ml of a H

EXAMPLE: (5) What is the percentage strength of "15" volume of H

EXAMPLE: (6) What volume of H

EXAMPLE: (7) 30 gm Ba(MnO

EXAMPLE: (8) the strength of "20 Volume" H

EXAMPLE: (9) What is weight of available oxygen from a solution of H2O2, if 20 ml of this solution need 25 ml, N/20 KMnO4 for complete oxidation? (Ans- 0.25)

EXAMPLE :( 10) calculate molarity of 44.8 V strength of H

_{2}O_{2}has Normality N/1.7 calculate w/V strength of this solution?.EXAMPLE: (2) Convert 20 V H

_{2}O_{2}into % strength or w/v strength?EXAMPLE: (3) Convert 6.8 % strength of H2O2 into Volume strength?

EXAMPLE: (4) 500 ml of a H

_{2}O_{2 }solution on decomposition produce 2 mole of H_{2}O. Calculate the Volume strength of of H_{2}O_{2}of solution? (Given Volume of O2 measured at 1atm and 273 K) (Ans - 44.8 V)EXAMPLE: (5) What is the percentage strength of "15" volume of H

_{2}O_{2}?EXAMPLE: (6) What volume of H

_{2}O_{2}solution of "11.2 volume strength is required to liberate 2240 ml of O_{2}at NTP?EXAMPLE: (7) 30 gm Ba(MnO

_{4})_{2}sample containing inert impurity completely reacting with 100 ml "28" volume strength of H_{2}O_{2}in acidic medium then what will be the percentage purity of Ba(MnO_{4})_{2}in the sample ?. (Ba=137, Mn = 55, O =16)EXAMPLE: (8) the strength of "20 Volume" H

_{2}O_{2}is equal?EXAMPLE: (9) What is weight of available oxygen from a solution of H2O2, if 20 ml of this solution need 25 ml, N/20 KMnO4 for complete oxidation? (Ans- 0.25)

EXAMPLE :( 10) calculate molarity of 44.8 V strength of H

_{2}O_{2}aq Solution?.
EXAMPLE: (11)
calculate the molarity of H

_{2}O_{2}if 11.2 ml H_{2}O_{2}require 30 ml of 0.5 M K2Cr2O7 for its complete oxidation; also calculate the Volume strength of H_{2}O_{2}? (Ans M=45/11.2 and volume strength=45)
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