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PYROMETALLURGY:

Once the mineral is separated from the gangue, the elemental metal is extracted from the mineral. Several different techniques can achieve this separation. In Pyrometallurgy, heat is employed to extract a metal from its mineral. Different heating conditions have different effects on the mineral.
(1) The Pyrometallurgy based on Thermodynamics principles, and generally Cu, Sn, Pb, Fe, and Hg extracted by Pyrometallurgy.
(2) Pyrometallurgy carried out by following process
(A) Roasting of ore:
(B) Calcination of ore:
(C) Smelting of ore: (Gangue, Flux, Slag )
           
(A) Roasting of ore: The ore is heated strongly below its melting point in presence of excess of air which removes impurities of non – metals at their volatile oxides.
(1) Roasting is exothermic process once started it does not required additional heating.
(2) Roasting employed for Sulphide ores.
(3) Chemical Conversion of ore takes place.
(4) Roasting is carried out in Reverbatory furnace
The process of roasting required the following:
(1) Conversion of sulphide ores to their respective oxides.
(2) Conversion of sulphide ores to their Sulphate.
Note: Some time roasting may not bring about complete oxidation
(3) Roasting at high temperature: the sulphide ore of some of the metal like Cu, Pb, Hg, Sb, etc when heated strongly in the free supply of air or O2 are reduced directly to the metal rather than to the metallic oxide for example.

The reduction of the sulphide ore directly into metal by heating it in air or O2 is called  Self reduction, Auto reduction, Air reduction etc and the SO2 produced is utilised  for manufacturing of Sulphuric acid.
Consequence of Roasting:
(1) Sulphide Ore is converted into oxide/sulphate which may be further decomposed into metal oxide, example Sulphur dioxide
(2) Organic Matter is burnt away.
(3) Impurities of sulphure, phosphorous, arsenic and antimony are oxidised into the respective volatile oxide.

(4) When concentrated tine Stone ore (SnO2) is heated strongly in a free supply of air (roasting), the impurities of CuS and FeS present in the ore are converted into CuSO4 and FeSO4 respectively.


(B) Calcination:   (C) Smelting:  (1) Flux: ,  (2) Slag:

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