Welcome to ChemZipper !!!: Fluorine is more electronegative than chlorine even then, p-flurobenzoic acid is weaker acid than p-chlorobenzoic acid explain ?

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Fluorine is more electronegative than chlorine even then, p-flurobenzoic acid is weaker acid than p-chlorobenzoic acid explain ?

Since halogens are more electronegative than carbon and also possesses lone pair electrons , therefore they exert both -I and +R effects . Now in F , the lone pair of electrons are present in 2p-orbitals but in Cl , they are present in 3p-orbitals . Since 2p- orbitals of fluorine and carbon are almost  equal size , therefore , the +R effect is more pronounced in p- flurobenzoic acid than p-chlorobenzoic acid.
 
Thus in p- flurobenzoic acid +R effect is out weight the -I effect but in p-chlorobenzoic acid, it is the -I effect which is out weight  the +R effect. Hence p- flurobenzoic acid is weaker acid than p-chlorobenzoic acid.

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