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Calculate the % of ionic character of a bond having length is 0.83 Å and 1.82 D as its observed dipole moment?

Pauling used dipole moment for depicting percentage of polarity and ionic character of the bond. According to Pauling, a bond can never be 100% ionic.


To calculate μ considering 100% ionic bond
                      = 4.8 × 10–10 × 0.83 × 10–8esu cm
                      = 4.8 × 0.83 × 10–18 esu cm = 3.984 D
                          % ionic character = 1.82/3.984 × 100 = 45.68%

(#) When electronegativity difference between two atoms is 2.1, there is 50% ionic character in the bond.

(#) When electronegativity difference is zero (identical atoms), the bond will be 100% covalent.

 

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