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STRUCTURE OF GRAPHITE:

(1) In Graphite Carbons are sp2 hybridised out of the four valence electrons, three   involved in (sp2-sigma) covalent bonds form hexagonal layers and fourth unhybridised p– electron of each carbon forms an extended delocalized p-bonding with carbon atoms of adjacent layers
(2) Each carbon is linked with 3 carbons and one carbon will be left and form a two dimensional shed like structure.

(3) Distance between two layers is very large so no regular bond is formed between two layers. The layers are attached with weak vander waal force of attraction.


(4) The carbon have unpaired electron so graphite is a good conductor of current.

(5) The C-C bond length within a layer is 141.5 pm while the inter layer distance is 335.4 pm shorter than that of Diamond (1.54 Å).
(6) Due to wide separation and weak interlayer bonds, graphite is sift , greasy and a lubricant character and low density.
(7) Graphite marks the paper black so it is called black lead or plumbago and so it is used in pencil lead.
(8) Composition of pencil lead is graphite plus clay .the percentage of lead in pencil is zero .
 (9) Graphite has high melting point so it is employed in manufacture of crucible.
(10) Graphite when heated with oxidizing agents like alkaline KMnO4 forms mellatic acid 
                                                 (Benzene hexa carboxylic acid).
(11) Graphite on oxidation with HNO3 gives acid i.e. known as Graphite acid C12H6O12

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