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VAPOUR PRESSURE AND RAOULT’S LAW:

VAPOUR PRESSURE:
(1) If a sample of water in its liquid phase is placed in an empty container, some of it will vaporize to form gaseous of water. This change is called evaporation.
(2) The pressure exerted by the vapour (molecules in the vapour phase) over the surface of the liquid at the equilibrium at given temperature is called the vapour pressure of the liquid.
OR
(3) It is the pressure exerted by the vapour when vapours are equilibrium with the liquid.
(4) The pressure exerted by vapours is called unsaturated vapour pressure or partial vapour at non equilibrium condition. 
Factors affecting vapour pressure:
(A) Temperature:.
(1) The temperature at which the vapour pressure of the liquid becomes equal to the atmospheric pressure is called its boiling point.
(2) Vapour pressure is directly proportional to the Temperature so that on increasing temperature the rate of evaporation increases and rate of condensation decreases and hence vapour pressure increases.
(3) The dependence of vapour pressure and temperature is given by CLASIUS CLAPERON equation.

(4) Vapour pressure of a particular liquid system is only the function of temperature only. It is independent from all other factors like surface area, amount of liquid, available space etc.

(A) Nature of liquid:
Vapour pressure of liquid =1/the strength of intermolecular forces acting between molecules 
For example: CCl4 has higher vapour pressure because of the weak intermolecular forces acting between its molecules than water which has stronger intermolecular forces acting between water molecules of volatile liquid has lower boiling point than a non-volatile liquid.
 Note:
(1) Relative lowering of vapour pressure of a solvent is a colligative property equal to the vapour pressure of the pure solvent minus the vapour pressure of the solution.
(2) For example: water at 20°C has a vapour pressure of 17.54 mmHg. Ethylene glycol is a liquid whose vapour pressure at 20°C is relatively low, an aqueous solution containing 0.010 mole fraction of ethylene glycol has a vapour pressure of 17.36 mmHg. Thus the vapour pressure lowering, DP = 17.54 mmHg ¾ 17.36 mmHg = 0.18 mmHg.

RAOULT’S LAW:
(1) Vapour pressure of a number of binary solutions of volatile liquids such as benzene and toluene at constant temperature gave the following generalization which is known as the Raoult’s law.
(2) Raoult’s law states thatThe partial pressure of any volatile component of a solution at any temperature is equal to the vapour pressure of the pure component multiplied by the mole fraction of that component in the solution
(A) Vapour pressure of liquid-liquid Solution:
(3) Suppose a binary solution contains nA moles of a volatile liquid A and nB moles of a volatile liquid B, if PA and PB are partial pressure of the two liquid components, the according to Raoult’s law
(4) If the vapour behaves like an ideal gas, then according to Dalton’s law of partial pressures, the total pressure P is given by 
Graphical representation of Raoult’s law:
(5) The relationship between vapour pressure and mole fraction of an ideal solution at constant temperature is shown. The dashed lines 1 and 2 represent the partial pressure of the components. The total vapour pressure is given by 3rd line in the above figure.

(B) Vapour pressure of Solid-liquid Solution:
(1) Vapor pressure, when a small amount of a non-volatile solute (solid) is added to the liquid (solvent). It is found that the vapour pressure of the solution is less than that of the pure solvent.
(2) The lowering of vapour pressure is due to the fact that the solute particles occupy a certain surface area and evaporation takes place from the surface only. and
(3) The particles of the solvent will have a less tendency to change into vapour i.e. the vapour pressure of the solution will be less than that of the pure solvent and it is termed as lowering of vapour pressure.
For a solution of non-volatile solute with volatile solvent.
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE (1): The vapour pressure of ethanol and methanol are 44.5 mm and 88.7 mm Hg respectively. An ideal solution is formed at the same temperature by mixing 60 g of ethanol with 40g of methanol. Calculate total vapour pressure of the solution.
SOLUTION:     
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE (2): What is the composition of the vapour which is in equilibrium at 30°C with a benzene-toluene solution with a mole fraction of benzene of 0.400?                    
SOLUTION: 
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE (3): The composition of vapour over a binary ideal solution is determined by the composition of the liquid. If XA    and YA are the mole-fraction of A in the liquid and vapour, respectively find the value of XA for which YA-X has a minimum. What is the value of the pressure at this composition?
SOLUTION
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ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE (4): One mole of a non-volatile solute is dissolved in two moles of water. The vapour pressure of the solution relative to that of water is
SOLUTION:
Mole fraction of solute in solution Or
                                                                 
Raoult's Law  v/s Dalton's Law: Determination of composition in vapour phase: Coming soon..

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