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METALLURGY-INTRODUCTION:

Minerals and Ores:
The biggest source of metals is earth’s crust. Metals are also found in rocks, sea water, some impurities, etc depending upon their chemical nature. Less electropositive metals have less affinity for oxygen, moisture and hence occur in free or native or uncombined state, e.g. Au, Pt, Ag, etc. While the metals with higher electropositive character occurs in combined state as compounds.
Minerals:
The naturally occurring chemical substances in the earth’s crust which are obtained by mining are known as minerals.
Ores:
Minerals which can be used as a source for commercial recovery of a desired substance are termed as ores. Earthy substances associated with ores are called gangue.

List of Important Ores:

Sl No
Name of the Element
Ores
Chemical Formulas
1
Aluminum (Al)
Bauxite
Al2O32H2O
Corundum
Al2O3
Kryolite
Na3AlF6
2
Calcium (Ca)
Dolomite
MgCO3CaCO3
Lime Ston
CaCO3
3
Copper (Cu)
Copper Glance
Cu2S
Copper Pyrite
CuFeS2
Malachite
2CuCO3Cu(OH)2
4
Gold (Au)
Calve rite
AuTe2
Sybarite
AgAuTe2
5
Iron (Fe)
Hematite
Fe2O3
IronPyrite
FeS2
Magnetite
Fe3O4
Siderite
FeCO3
6
Lead (Pb)
Anglesite
PbCl2
Galena
PbS
7
Phosphorous (P)
Floreopetite
3Ca3(PO4)CaFe2
Phosphorite
Ca3(PO4)CaFe2
8
Potassium (K)
Karnalite
KClMgCl6H2O
Salt Petre
KNO3
9
Magnesium (Mg)
Dolomite
MgCO3CaCO3
Karnalite
KClMgCl26H2O
10
Mercury (Hg)
Calomel
Hg2Cl2
Cinnabar
HgS
11
Silver (Ag)
Silver Glance
Ag2S
     12
Sodium (Na)
Rock Salt
NaCl
Sodium Carbonate
Na2CO3
13
Tin (Sn)
Classiterite
SnO2

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