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How does it account for benzene's extraordinary stability ? Give an orbiial picture of benzene ?



The ring is comprised of six sp2 hybridized carbon's each sigma bonded  to carbon’s and an H. (Fig-1) Each Carbon  also has a "p" AO with one electron :  the AO's project above and below the plane of the ring which is a nodal plane. Rather than form three localized alternating doubic bonds (cycIohexatriene). these "p" AO's overlap  laterally to form an extended π-system in which the electrons  are symmetrically delocalized over all six carbon's making the Carbon's equivalent . (Fig-2) Delocalization results in less electron repulsion, greater stabilizalion, and lower energy.

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