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Explain factors affecting solubility of a substance .

Factors affecting Solubility:
Earlier we have observed that solubility of one substance into another depends on the nature of the substances. In addition to these variables, two other parameters, i.e., temperature and pressure also control this phenomenon.
(1) Effect of temperature:
The solubility of a solid in a liquid is significantly affected by temperature changes. Consider the equilibrium exist between dissolution and crystallisation. This, being dynamic equilibrium, must follow Le Chateliers Principle. In general…….
(i) If in a nearly saturated solution, the dissolution process is endothermic (Δsol H > 0), the solubility should increase with rise in temperature and
(ii) If it is exothermic (Δsol H > 0) the solubility should decrease. These trends are also observed experimentally.
(2) Effect of Pressure:
Pressure does not have any significant effect on solubility of solids in liquids. It is so because solids and liquids are highly incompressible and practically remain unaffected by changes in pressure.
(2) Solubility of gas in Liquid: 
Many gases dissolve in water. Oxygen dissolves only to a small extent in water. It is this dissolved oxygen which sustains all aquatic life. On the other hand, hydrogen chloride gas (HCl) is highly soluble in water. Solubility of gases in liquids is greatly affected by pressure and
temperature.
Factors affecting Solubility:
(1) Effect of Pressure:
The solubility of gases increase with increase of pressure. For solution of gases in a solvent, consider a solution is act as system and that system to be in astate of dynamic equilibrium, i.e., under these conditions rate of gaseous particles entering and leaving the solution phase is the same. Now increase the pressure over the solution phase by compressing the gas to a smaller volume, this will increase the number of gaseous particles per unit volume over the solution and also the rate at which the gaseous particles are striking the surface of solution to enter it. The solubility of the gas will increase until a new equilibrium is reached resulting in an increase in the pressure of a gas above the solution and thus its solubility increases.

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