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Saturday, April 25, 2020

What are the Application of Henry’s Law ? And explain with examples.

Henry's law finds several applications in industry and explains some biological phenomena Notable among these are:
 (1) To increase the solubility of CO2 in soft drinks and soda water, the bottle is sealed under high pressure.
(2)  To minimize the painful effects accompanying the decompression of deep sea divers, oxygen diluted with less soluble helium gas is used as breathing gas.
(3)  In lungs, where oxygen is present in air with high partial pressure, haemoglobin combines with oxygen to form oxyhaemoglobin. In tissues where partial pressure of oxygen is low, oxyhaemoglobin releases oxygen for utilization in cellular activities.
(1) At High Pressure:
Scuba divers must cope with high concentrations of dissolved gases while breathing air at high pressure underwater. Increased pressure increases the solubility of atmospheric gases in blood. When the divers come towards surface, the pressure gradually decreases. This releases the dissolved gases and leads to the formation of bubbles of nitrogen in the blood. This blocks capillaries and creates a medical condition known as bends, which are painful and dangerous to life.
 To avoid bends, as well as, the toxic effects of high concentrations of nitrogen in the blood, the tanks used by scuba divers are filled with air diluted with helium (11.7% helium, 56.2% nitrogen and 32.1% oxygen).
(2) At Low Pressure:
 At high altitudes the partial pressure of oxygen is less than that at the ground level. This leads to low concentrations of oxygen in the blood and tissues of people living at high altitudes or climbers. Low blood oxygen causes climbers to become weak and unable to think clearly, symptoms of a condition known as anoxia.
(2) Effect of temperature:
Solubility of gases in liquids decreases with rise in temperature. When dissolved, the gas molecules are present in liquid phase and the process of dissolution can be considered similar to condensation and heat is evolved in this process. We have known that dissolution process involves dynamic equilibrium and thus must follow Le Chatelier's Principle. As dissolution is an exothermic process, the solubility should decrease with increase of temperature.

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