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Wednesday, July 28, 2021

Why dipole moment of NH3 is lower than NH3?

Both NH3 and NF3 have sp3 hybridization and trigonal pyramidal shape.

Fluorine has more electronegative than nitrogen but NH3 has more dipole moment than NF3.  In NH3, Nitrogen is more electronegative than Hydrogen. So Nitrogen pulls the electrons from Hydrogen towards itself and so, the direction of moment due to the N-H bonds is in the same direction as that of the lone pair of electrons on Nitrogen. Hence here additive effect appears while in case of NF3, Fluorine is more electronegative than Nitrogen. So fluorine pulls electrons from nitrogen towards itself  so that direction of moment due to N-F bonds is in the opposite direction as the lone pair of electron on nitrogen atom. Hence it is clear dipole moment of NH3 is more than NF3.

Related Questions:

(1) The Dipole moment of Chloromethane is more than Fluoromethane. Explain.

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