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Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Why transition metals and their compounds are act as catalyst?

Transition metals and their compounds are known to act as good catalyst due to the following reasons: 
(1) Due to the variable oxidation state, they form unstable intermediate compounds and provide a new path with lower activation energy for the reaction (Intermediate compound formation theory) and hence rate of reaction is increases.
(2) In some cases the finely divided metals or their compounds provide a large surface area for adsorption and the adsorbed reactants react faster due to the closer contact (Adsorption theory).
Some Important Catalytic:
1. TiCl3 + Al(C2H5)3 Used as Ziegler – Natta catalyst 
2. V2O5 Converts SO2 to SO3 in the contact process for making H2SO4
3. MnO2 Used as a catalyst to decompose KClO3 to give O2
4. Fe Used in Haber – Bosch process for making NH3
5. FeCl3 Production of CCl4 from CS2 and Cl2
6. FeSO4 & H2O2 Fenton's reagent 
7. PdCl2 Wacker process for the following conversion 
            C2H2 + H2O + PdCl2 to CH3CHO + 2HCl + Pd 
8. Pd For hydrogenation (Phenol to Cyclohexanol) 
9. Pt/PtO Adam catalyst used for reduction 
10. Pt SO2 to SO3 contact process 
11. Pt Cleaning car exhaust fumes 
12. Cu In manufacture of (CH3)2SiCl2
13. Cu/V Oxidation of cyclohexanol 
14. CuCl2 Deacon process or making Cl2 from HCl 
15. Ni Raney nickel
16. Pt/Rh Ostwald's process. NH3 to NO
17. Baeyer's reagent - 1% alkaline solution of KMnO4.
18. Etard's reagent- CrO2Cl2 Chromyl chloride.
19. Luca's reagent- Anhydrous ZnCl2+ concentrated HCl.
20. Barford reagent- Cu(CH3COOH)2+ CH3COOH.
21. Brown catalyst- Nickel Boride.
22. Lindlar's Catalyst- Pd/C use to convert alkynes to cis alkenes.
23. Adkin's catalyst- (CuO.CuCr2O4) or CuO.Cuo.Cr2O3, Copper chromite is use to reduce corboxylic acids into corresponding alcohols 

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