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Sunday, August 15, 2021

Covalent radius:

Covalent radius: It is defined as one half of the distance between the nuclei (inter nuclear distance) of two covalently bonded like atoms in a homo nuclear diatomic molecule is called the covalent radius of that.

(A) For Homo atomic Molecules: The covalent radius (rA) of atom A in a molecule A2 may be given as:

The distance between nuclei of two single covalently bonded atoms in homo diatomic molecules is equal to the sum of covalent radii of both the atoms.

Illustrative example (1): A given compound A2 whose total dA-A is 1.4 A0. The atomic (covalent) radius of an atom is.

Solution:  We known that

(B) For Heteroatomic Molecules: In a hetero diatomic molecules AB where the electro negativity of atoms A and B are different, the experimental values of inter nuclear distance dA-B is less than the theoretical value (rA +rB).

(1) Stevenson & Schoemaker Equation (1941):

Covalent radius of heterogeneous molecule like A-B etc determine by Stevenson & Schromaker Equation, if atoms are formed different type of covalent bond i.e. on atom is more electronegative than the other combined atom. Then the covalent radius is calculated by the relation given by Stevenson & Schoemaker, given as:

For a diatomic Hetero molecule:

Bond Length (lA-B) = r+ rB- 0.09(XA-XB)

Where XA= Electronegativity of more electronegative atom

Where XB= Electronegativity of less electronegative atom

Illustrative examples 

(1) The electronegativity of F and H are 4.0 and 2.1 respectively. The percentage ionic character in H and F bond is.

Related Questions:

(1) What are the Amphoteric metals ? gives Examples.

(2) Name of total metalloids present in periodic table ?

(3) Total numbers of elements which are liquid at normal temperature is ?

(4) What is Mendeleev's periodic table ? give important features and draw back of Mendeleev's table.

(5) What is atomic density ? give the periodicity of atomic density in periods and groups.

(6) What is atomic volume ? and what is periodicity of atomic volume in groups and periods ?

(7) Why there are 2, 8 and 8 elements in first, second and third periodic of periods table respectively ? Explain.

(8) In alkali metal group which is the strongest reducing agent in aqueous solution and why?

(9) The electron affinity of sulphur is greater than oxygen. Why?

(10) The first ionization energy of carbon atom is greater than that of boron atom, whereas reverse is true for the second ionization energy. Explain.

(11) The electronegativities of B, Al, Ga are 2.0, 1.5, 1.6 respectively. The trend is not regular. Explain.

(12) Li2CO3 decomposes on heating but other alkali metal carbonates don’t. Explain.

(13) Of all noble metals, gold has got a relatively high electron affinity. Explain.

(14) What are the increasing order of ioni radii of first group elements in water ?

(15) What are the increasing order of molar conductivity of first group elements in water ?

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