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IONIC EQUILIBRIUM

An equilibrium involving between dissociate electrolyte and the ions produced by the dissociation called ionic equilibrium. " the ionic equilibrium deals the equilibrium of a substance with its degree of dissociation (DOD) of a solute in a particular solvent   (generally water) ,factors affecting  DOD, and PH calculation" 


Depending upon DOD The substances (solute) are classified  as  follows:

1.   Electrolytes and
2.   Non-electrolytes
(1): Electrolyte (conducting)
The substances which produce ions in aqueous solution or molten state and can conduct electricity are known as electrolyte..
Example: NaCl(S) on  heating above its melting point  it produce ions and also produce ions when dissolved in water at 25 degree centigrade . and other KCl, HCl, NaCl etc.

On the basis of conducting units conductors are of two types :

Metallic or Electric Conductors: Electricity conduct due to the presence of free and mobile electron which act as electricity conducting unit called metallic or electric conductors. eg. Metals, Alloys, Graphite, Gas, Carbon etc.

Ionic Conductors or Electrolytes: Conductors in which the current is passes through due to the presence of free ions are called Ionic Conductors or Electrolyte or Electrolytic conductors.

On the basis of ions produce in molten or liquids state are two type:

True electrolyte : Those electrolytes which can produced ions and conduct electricity even in molten state  as well as when dissolved  in solvent are called true electrolytes like NaCl. KCl ete

Potential electrolyte:Those electrolytes which do not produce ions and do not conduct electricity into their molten or liquid state but produce ions in appropriate solvent are called potential  electrolytes. Example  HCl and CH3COOH ete

(2) Non Electrolyte (non-conducting) :The substance which dissolved in solvent but do not produce  any ions is known as non electrolytes  and don’t conduct electricity. For example  glucose, urea   sucrose, benzene ete

On the basis of  extent of DOD electrolytes are two type:

(A)Strong electrolyte: Those susbstance whose aqueous solution or molten form conduct electricity to a greater extent. They almost completely ionised in water.
            e.g. NaCl, H2SO4, HCl, NaOH, NH4Cl
            Since strong electrolyte completely ionised in aqueous solution so their ionisation is represented as    NaCl(S)----> Na+ (aq) + Cl- (aq)

(B) Weak electrolyte: Those substance whose aqueous solution or molten form conducts electricity to a lesser extent. They do not completely ionised in water i.e. partially ionised. They behaves as poor conductor of electricity.e.g. when CH3COOH is dissolved in water, it is ionised partly and an equilibrium is setup between the ions and the unionised electrolyte.
(2) Non-electrolyte      
      Those substance whose aqueous solution or molten form does not conduct electricity to any extent. They are bad conductor of electricity.
      e.g. aqueous solution of sugar, urea, etc. do not conduct electricity.

       continue reading.......

                                      ACID-BASE THEORIES



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