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Thursday, January 28, 2021

Hydrolysis reactions (Inorganic reactions):

Hydrolysis is  a chemical process in which  a certain molecule is split into two parts by the addition of a molecule of water. One fragment of the parent molecule gains a hydrogen ion (H+) from the addition of water. The other group collects the remaining hydroxyl group(OH-) for examples :

(1) During  hydrolysis of a covalent compound having non metal central atom, if water molecule attack at central atom and hydrolysis occurs at room temperature then oxy acid of the non metal will be formed, if the central atom is in it one of the common oxidation state.  Oxidation state of  central atom of the oxy acid  will be same as its in the given substrate, However this rule is not applicable to XeF2, XeF4 and XeF3.

(2) hydrolysis reactions occur in non redox reaction except XeF2 and XeF4 and  mixed anhydride i.e. central atoms has its uncommon oxidation state for examples;

(3) During  hydrolysis, hybridization of central atom in transition state and may  or may not change.

(4) BF3, SiF4, CCl4, SbCl3, and BiCl3 undergo partial hydrolysis even in excess of water while PCl5, SF4, SeF6,IF7, XeF6 H4P2O8, H2S2O8,P4O10 can undergo partial as well as complete hydrolysis by adjusting the amount water.

(5) Rate of hydrolysis is directly proportional to the positive (+) charge density at least electronegative atoms of  substrate provided. And  the least electronegative  atom must contain vacant  orbital and have no crowding.The order of  rate of hydrolysis of some compounds are given as;

PCl5(V) > SiCl4(IV) > AlCl3(III) > MgCl2(II) > CCl4 (NO vacant orbital) > SF6 (Crowding)

Related Questions:

Question (1): Why aqueous solution of AlCl3 is acidic in nature?

Question (2): What happen when aq AlCl3 react with Acid or Base?

Question (3): Although anhydrous aluminium chloride is covalent but its aqueous solution is ionic in nature. Why?

Question (4): Arrange in increasing order of extent of hydrolysis [ CCI4, MgCI2, AICI3, PCl5, SiCI4].

Question (5): Although Sulphur contain vacant d-orbital but SF6 does not undergo hydrolysis. Why?

Question (6): CCl4 can not be hydrolysed but SiCl4 can be. Why?

Question (7): What are the hydrolysis products of urea?

Question (8): Why SF6 is inert where as SF4 is highly reactive towards H20?.

Question (9): Why SF6 behaves inert towards hydrolysis?

Question (10): Why PCl3 hydrolysed while NCl3 can not be hydrolysed?

Question (11): Why hydrolysis of NCl3 gives NH4OH and HOCl, while PCl3 on hydrolysis gives H3PO3 and HCl?

Question (12) NCl3 and PCl3 on hydrolysis give different kinds of products. These is because of

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